Assign object permissions

Assigning object permissions should be very simple once permissions are created for models.

Prepare permissions

Let’s assume we have following model:

class Task(models.Model):
    summary = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    content = models.TextField()
    reported_by = models.ForeignKey(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    created_at = models.DateTimeField(auto_now_add=True)

... and we want to be able to set custom permission view_task. We let Django know to do so by adding permissions tuple to Meta class and our final model could look like:

class Task(models.Model):
    summary = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    content = models.TextField()
    reported_by = models.ForeignKey(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    created_at = models.DateTimeField(auto_now_add=True)

    class Meta:
        permissions = (
            ('view_task', 'View task'),
        )

After we call management commands makemigrations and migrate our view_task permission would be added to default set of permissions.

Note

By default, Django adds 3 permissions for each registered model:

  • add_modelname
  • change_modelname
  • delete_modelname

(where modelname is a simplified name of our model’s class). See https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/topics/auth/default/#default-permissions for more detail.

There is nothing new here since creation of permissions is handled by django. Now we can move to assigning object permissions.

Assign object permissions

We can assign permissions for any user/group and object pairs using same, convenient function: guardian.shortcuts.assign_perm().

For user

Continuing our example we now can allow Joe user to view some task:

>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
>>> boss = User.objects.create(username='Big Boss')
>>> joe = User.objects.create(username='joe')
>>> task = Task.objects.create(summary='Some job', content='', reported_by=boss)
>>> joe.has_perm('view_task', task)
False

Well, not so fast Joe, let us create an object permission finally:

>>> from guardian.shortcuts import assign_perm
>>> assign_perm('view_task', joe, task)
>>> joe.has_perm('view_task', task)
True

For group

This case doesn’t really differ from user permissions assignment. The only difference is we have to pass Group instance rather than User.

>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import Group
>>> group = Group.objects.create(name='employees')
>>> assign_perm('change_task', group, task)
>>> joe.has_perm('change_task', task)
False
>>> # Well, joe is not yet within an *employees* group
>>> joe.groups.add(group)
>>> joe.has_perm('change_task', task)
True

Another example:

>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User, Group
>>> from guardian.shortcuts import assign_perm
# fictional companies
>>> companyA = Company.objects.create(name="Company A")
>>> companyB = Company.objects.create(name="Company B")
# create groups
>>> companyUserGroupA = Group.objects.create(name="Company User Group A")
>>> companyUserGroupB = Group.objects.create(name="Company User Group B")
# assign object specific permissions to groups
>>> assign_perm('change_company', companyUserGroupA, companyA)
>>> assign_perm('change_company', companyUserGroupB, companyB)
# create user and add it to one group for testing
>>> userA = User.objects.create(username="User A")
>>> userA.groups.add(companyUserGroupA)
>>> userA.has_perm('change_company', companyA)
True
>>> userA.has_perm('change_company', companyB)
False
>>> userB = User.objects.create(username="User B")
>>> userB.groups.add(companyUserGroupB)
>>> userB.has_perm('change_company', companyA)
False
>>> userB.has_perm('change_company', companyB)
True

Assigning Permissions inside Signals

Note that the Anonymous User is created before the Permissions are created. This may result in Django signals, e.g. post_save being sent before the Permissions are created. You will need to take this into an account when processing the signal.

@receiver(post_save, sender=User)
def user_post_save(sender, **kwargs):
    """
    Create a Profile instance for all newly created User instances. We only
    run on user creation to avoid having to check for existence on each call
    to User.save.
    """
    user, created = kwargs["instance"], kwargs["created"]
    if created and user.username != settings.ANONYMOUS_USER_NAME:
        from profiles.models import Profile
        profile = Profile.objects.create(pk=user.pk, user=user, creator=user)
        assign_perm("change_user", user, user)
        assign_perm("change_profile", user, profile)

The check for user.username != settings.ANONYMOUS_USER_NAME is required otherwise the assign_perm calls will occur when the Anonymous User is created, however before there are any permissions available.